Madurai Meenakshi - The First Warrior Queen of India

What you see above is the Madurai Meenakshi Amman temple in South India, one of the masterpieces of Dravidian architecture. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Meenakshi who is the primary deity here. A rather unusually large temple for a goddess, as most Dravidian temples worship male gods as their primary deity.

Who was Madurai Meenakshi?

Around 300 B. C (yes, 2300 years ago), King Kulasekara Pandyan had already build a small temple with the Lingam which is now referred to as God Sundarar. His son, Malayadhwaja Pandyan became the next King of the Pandyan empire. But his wife were not able to procreate, they went to various temples in South India hoping to be blessed with a child. However, Queen Kanchana Mala never got pregnant which created panic among the Pandyan Kingdom, as they would be without a future ruler. The couple found a baby girl deserted and were captured by the beauty of her eyes. They took her and named her Meenaksi (Meen means Fish and Aksi means Eyes in Tamil) . The fish-eyed baby also never blinked her eyes, which was later thought of as "always keeping a careful eye on Madurai" . For this reason, Madurai is also called "Thoonga nagaram" which means "The city that never sleeps".

Madurai Meenakshi as a child in a recent painting.
Meenakshi grew up learning all the martial arts and was especially good at archery and sword fighting. The King and the queen were delighted at how brilliant and kind she was. However, it was not customary in the Pandyan Kingdom for a woman to adorn the throne. When she reached the age of 21, the King invited all the neighboring kings and princes to Madurai, hoping to get her married. The eligible bachelors (or not, as polygamy was rife at that time) came to Madurai with the most precious gifts they could get. Loads of gold, diamonds, silk, perfume, tusks, etc were brought by the neighboring kings hoping to impress Meenakshi.

However, Meenakshi refused all their gifts. She said that 'Only a man who was more brave than herself' would be fit to marry her.  She challenged each one of them to a duel match of swordfighting and archery.
Princess Madurai Meenakshi was a fierce warrior (This picture is just added for dramatization:)

 Sadly, the Kings and Princes were no match for her and therefore she remained single. Her parents were initially upset as they did not get a King to reign over the Pandyan Kingdom, but later dubbed her the Queen. This is perhaps the first time in Indian history where a woman ruled a kingdom by herself.

But Meenakshi was not just a namesake queen. She rode her chariot around the city of Madurai, settling disputes and eliminating crimes. She realized that inorder to create jobs and keep the people happy, a massive project would be necessary. She ordered the expansive construction of the then miniscule temple (built by Kulasekara Pandyan). She wanted the temple to be constructed in size and architecture that had never been seen before. This project mobilised the men and women around Madurai to work and prosper.

Above: The architecture of the temple is extraordinary and it was in the top 30 choices for the "World wonders"

While the construction was going on for a few years, Meenakshi received a message from an unknown King Sundarar. He had gathered a large army and was marching towards the city of Madurai. There was nothing known about him or his kingdom. Meenakshi went with her own army to defend her Kingdom. While the infantry and the cavalry divisions were engaged in close combat, Meenakshi and Sundarar were on their chariots shooting arrows at each other.  As they chariots moved closer to each other, Meenakshi laid eyes on Sundarar. It was love at first sight! Further, she had realized that he was an epitome of bravery. She surrendered to him at the battlefield and he married her.

After the grand wedding ceremonies, Meenakshi and Sundarar visited the Temple of Madurai, which was nearing completion. The architects had carved the beautiful statue of Meenakshi at the center of the temple. They had no idea that she would get married and had not allocated space for the King's statue. Therefore, the lingam which was initially set up by her grandfather was named as Sundarar.
Even today when you look at the layout of the temple, you can understand it was built to glorify Meenakshi. A tour guide explains about Madurai Meenakshi in Tamil (English transcription)

 Other interesting myths or facts:

1. The difference between the Hindus and other ancient religions is that they still preserve their scriptures and believe them, unlike the Mayas of Mexico. For example, Madurai Meenakshi is worshipped as a Goddess and considered an Avatar of Shakthi (God of feminine power). Thousands of people worship here everyday, making it a very busy place.

The idol of Meenakshi temple cannot be photographed by law , so the best picture you can see is this:

 Above: The Madurai Meenakshi Amman Idol. Visitors are banned from taking pictures of her.

1. The exact dates of her lifetime are unknown, but many Tamil literatures like Thevaram and Thirumarai have mentioned her. The Early Sangam literature (300 B.C - 300 A.D) has also mentioned the presence of the temple tank (Potramarai Kulam) which makes scholars think she could have lived much earlier than 300 B.C.

2. Meenakshi was born with three breasts which is depicted in many sculptures. Myth says that her third breast disappeared after seeing her husband.

Above: Madurai Meenakshi Sculpture with three breasts

3. The current Madurai Meenakshi Temple has been revamped many times, and has endured some major demolition, most notably by the muslim invader Malik Kafur in 1310 A.D. Just like the demolition of Bamiyan Buddhas, he created a team to destroy the temple. Apparently he was appalled at the 'barbarian nature of dravidians worshipping a Woman Goddess'. However, he could not completely destroy it because of the sturdiness and enormity. Reminds you of Menkaure’s pyramid in Egypt, doesn't it?

4. The original Meenakshi statue was taken away by the priest of the temple, shortly before Malik Kafur's invasion. It is believed to be a much larger stone statue than the existing one. This information is not publicised as it will cause controvery among the religious people.

Above: Sculpture depicts Meenakshi-Sundareswarar Wedding overseen by Lord Vishnu

5. Many unknown facts are adorned with magical events. For example, Meenakshi was found in a "Flame of Fire" and Meenakshi's wedding was overseen by Lord Vishnu himself, etc. This was done to glorify Meenakshi to elevate her into a true Goddess.

6. Meenakshi-Sundareswarar wedding is still celebrated every year, in the month of April. This event is called "Meenakshi Thirukalyanam" and draws a few hundred thousand devotees.


How can acquire a photograph of the meenaski sculpture so that I could enlarge it and use it on the stage as my daughter is doing a varnam piece in her Bharatnatyam recital on Meenakshi

I do not think it is possible to get a good quality picture of Madurai Meenakshi Idol unless you take a hidden cam and take a picture of it yourself. If you are in Madurai, you can pay a few people to do it for you.

how can you say madurai meenakshi is a human being?? as a hindu i am very offended by this article. she is a god, like jesus.

Jesus walked on earth and was a great inspiration, Just like Madurai Meenakshi. Nothing to be offended in this post, I have only shown how great her achievements were.

Dear Sir,
I am a creative Author on Vedic research. I seek your permission to use the Madurai Meenakshi as a child in a recent painting by Vani in my work to bring out the best of decoded Vedic Hymn for the befit of all. Please let me have your confirmation by mail

Dear Sir,
I am a creative Author on Vedic research. I seek your permission to use the Madurai Meenakshi as a child in a recent painting by Vani in my work to bring out the best of decoded Vedic Hymn for the befit of all. Please let me have your confirmation by mail

Hi Kishen, You have my permission to use all or parts of the site as long as you credit the site somewhere in the book or your blog. However, unlike the photographs, the painting itself is not done by me, it was sent to me via email from a friend.

I am a HIndu but didnt find Meenakshi name in Lalitha Sahastranama.. where Visalakshi, Kamakshi, mantangi &allother goddess name was there.. m v confused.. any light on this..

Are u sure about the age she got married?

Are u sure about the age she got married?

I just want to tell you no one cares.

Yes this is the story believed by most of the clans. There is still some to the story. KalAlagar from the Alagar Hills told Karuppar to gaurd the port "Never open whoever comes" and left for the wedding of the Meenakshi Sundareshwar. When Alagar came to madurai the Vaigai River was flowing too high. Time the Alagar came to the marriage the event was over. Alagar didn't see the marriage. Alagar went back to the port and asked Karuppar to open the gates of port. Karuppar never allowed Alagar inside the port and beating him with the rop. These are legends which can be seen still today. Inside every story there are living legends and passed on to the next generation. what is that 18 steps of Karuppar

Well don't know what is the basis for your information, it's half baked and not properly researched.
Meenakshi doesn't need to be glorified to a status because She indeed was a Goddess.
Secondly, She Herself came to courtyard of Kampana in Kanchipuram to make him liberate SriRangam and Madurai and presenting him the sword of Shiva.
When Kampana gained entry into Sunderswar, the deepams are glowing even after 40 years.
The Main statues we're never taken out but actually camouflaged using fake ones after building walls before them.
Most of this info is given in Madurai Vijayam by Telugu princess Gangadevi and also in yearly temple registry .
Sir I acknowledge ur splendid explanation of ancient information but sometimes in some important places your history is a lot deflected than required.
Hope u read some books before writing important information about some very important places and Gods

Kadamba vaasini refers to Maa Shakti in madurai.

The picture you have mentioned as the childhood image of Goddess Meenakshi is that of Goddess Bala Tripura Sundari. And Sundareshwara was not any normal King but a form of Lord Shiva himself. The article needs more research

She is not Indian. She is from madurai in kumari kandam.

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